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Thermodynamics regards different kinds of heat and energy transfer. Heat is a form of energy and can transfer from a hot object or area to a cooler one through radiation, physical contact, or the flow of heated particles known as convection.

Heat represents energy transferred between systems because of a temperature difference, while temperature measures how fast atoms are moving.

Thanks to thermodynamics, scientists and engineers have created air conditioning, central heating, and computers that don’t overheat.

Biologists also benefit from this field: Thermodynamics governs how organisms receive, store, and expend energy.

For example, plants take in heat energy in the form of the sun’s radiation and animals emit heat during energy metabolism.

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